Information Center


Scientifically, how did the Johnny Lee deposit form?

The 1.4 billion year old deposit formed on the seafloor around a “black smoker” type hot springs system. In this type of sea bottom hot spring, hot water with high concentrations of dissolved metals and sulfur vent onto the seafloor, and encounter very cold seawater. The change in temperature and chemistry cause the metallic elements including copper to bond with other elements and precipitate onto the seafloor as metal-bearing minerals. These build up in sheet like layers that can be mined.