There are sulfide minerals present in copper mining which can create acid when they oxidize. Fortunately, the Johnny Lee deposit is completely encased by rocks having a high concentration of carbonate, which acts as a buffering (or neutralizing agent) against acid. In our intensive test work, these minerals have successfully neutralized the acidity that has been produced by sulfide oxidation. Tintina is taking every measure to minimize acid production, and the large volumes of carbonate in the mined rock and its host rocks are expected to be a great help in managing potentially acid generating rock (PAG). Mine operations around the world developed in carbonate host rocks are very successful in protecting the environment.